Microdosing isn’t a new concept. We’ve known about the possible benefits for decades. Now there’s more research on the topic than ever, and the results have been nothing short of inspiring.
Studies support the idea that microdosing psychedelics such as LSD or psilocybin help improve one’s ability to solve complex problems and think more creatively. Now, researchers are discovering these compounds may serve as an alternative treatment to common cognitive impairments such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder).
We’ll look at the research surrounding low-dose psychedelic use in people with ADHD and dig deep to uncover whether microdosing can reduce symptoms. We also look at what substances are likely to offer the most value for this condition and what you can do to get the best results.
Can You Use Psychedelics to Treat ADHD?
So far, the research on whether or not psychedelics can be used as a reliable treatment for the disorder is still in the early stages. It’s too soon to make any definitive claims on whether these drugs work, and this will largely depend on the individual.
Current research supports the idea that tryptamine-based psychedelics, such as psilocybin, LSD, MDMA, and DMT, are useful for treating other conditions associated with neurochemical balance. Many of these conditions share distinct overlaps with the pathophysiology believed to underpin ADHD.
Conditions with strong evidence psychedelics can support:
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- Treatment-resistant depression
- Addiction and alcoholism
- Existential dread and anxiety
- Cluster headaches
What Does the Research Say?
Research on this topic is still in the early stages. However, the current evidence definitely looks promising, but it should be taken with “a grain of salt,” at least until hard-standing clinical trials appear.
Plenty of anecdotal evidence shows positive results for people microdosing with psychedelics to treat ADHD.
Here’s what the research says so far.
Study #1 (Survey): Survey On the Effects of Low-Dose Psychedelics
This online survey exploring the effectiveness of psychedelics on ADHD produced promising results from people who use psychedelic microdoses to help with attention difficulties .
The survey asked 3,590 people who have previously or are currently microdosing with psychedelics for self-rated reports on their experiences. Out of these people, 1,062 claimed to use low-dose psychedelics to treat anxiety, ADHD, and other mental disorders.
Out of these people, 79.2% claimed to have been prescribed conventional medications previously. The survey discovered that 70% of these participants favored microdosing psychedelics over conventional treatments. These participants claimed that their symptoms lessened or disappeared entirely after microdosing with their chosen psychedelic (Psilocybin, LSD, 1P-LSD, or MDMA).
The survey concluded that low-dose psychedelics might help alleviate symptoms of mental conditions, including ADHD.
Study #2 (Meta-Analysis): Psychedelics, Brain Functions, & Behavior
Another paper compared several past studies involving psychedelics as a potential treatment option for people with ADHD . The research paper reviewed the current evidence to support psychedelics as a treatment for ADHD.
Preliminary evidence looked into the first-hand experiences of people that had replaced stimulant medication with psychedelic microdoses. The paper also outlined a connection between dysfunctional neural mechanisms, the neural effects of psychedelics, and the effects of psychedelics on brain function and behavior.
In chapter one of the paper, the structural and functional brain impairments and the neurotransmitter systems involved with ADHD were assessed and outlined.
In chapter two, the paper went on to assess the structural and functional brain effects, neurotransmitter systems, and neural mechanisms associated with psychedelics. The researchers then went on to make comparisons with these mechanisms in relation to the impairments and neurotransmitter systems involved with ADHD. This is where the researchers started creating links to support psychedelics as a potential treatment for the condition.
In chapter three, research into psychedelic microdoses was assessed, and safety concerns were addressed. Anecdotal and experimental evidence of microdosing for ADHD was also assessed. These non-scientific articles and case reports described “promising and potentially life-changing benefits of microdosing psychedelics for ADHD.”
With all the research assessed, the paper concluded that using psychedelic microdoses for treating ADHD is possible, but further study is needed to outline exactly how these substances can help curb symptoms.
Study #3 (Upcoming Clinical Trial): Microdosing for ADHD
There’s quite a lot of research surrounding the use of psychedelics for ADHD but very few clinical trials — which are considered the gold standard of the research world.
One upcoming trial plans to observe patients consuming a microdose of MM-120 (an optimized version of LSD) over a 6-week period. The trial hopes to discover whether MM-120 is an effective treatment for ADD and ADHD.
The trial will be conducted by Mind Medicine Inc. It’s a phase two multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that’ll be testing the effectiveness of a 20 microgram dose of MM-120 in the treatment of ADHD in adults.
This will be a 1:1 randomization, double-blind, to MM-120 or the placebo. An estimated 52 participants will consume the drug/placebo twice per week for six weeks. The trial is expected to discover whether there’s a baseline change in ADHD symptoms among the MM-120 group.
Study #4 (Clinical Trial): Long-Term Effects of Psilocybin Compared to ADHD Medication
Another upcoming trial aims to look at the immediate and long-term effects of psilocybin on the cortical and cortico-subcortical brain networks.
The trial will be conducted by The Washing University School of Medicine. This phase 1 trial will employ functional brain imaging to discover the effects of psilocybin on the brain — specifically the 5-HT2A receptor.
5-HT2A is a serotonin receptor that may be related to remission in ADHD .
Although this trial isn’t ADHD-specific, it will be compared against methylphenidate — a stimulant medication used in the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD. The study may uncover more information on how psilocybin affects brain function — specifically the 5-HT2A receptor — and human behavior. This could lead to further study into the substance’s benefits for mental dysfunctions.
What Psychedelics Work Best for ADHD?
Although clinical trials and scientific studies to do with psychedelics and mental disorders are becoming more apparent, most of the research looks into psilocybin and LSD. These are the two most commonly used psychedelic substances among people that are looking to help treat ADHD and other disorders.
Other psychedelics and mild-altering substances may be beneficial to people with this condition, but concrete research is slim to none at the moment. That being said, there are other substances that are gaining interest as potentially effective ADHD treatments, such as tryptamine psychedelics like 4-AcO-DMT, 1P-LSD, LSZ, ETH-LAD, AL-LAD, PRO-LAD, 1V-LSD, or other lysergamides.
All of these substances act on the same receptors as psilocybin and LSD — namely, the 5HT2C receptors. These compounds are all thought to impact neural pathways associated with higher executive function and thought.
In this section, we’ll be looking into psilocybin and LSD primarily as these two substances have the most evidence to support their use in the treatment of ADHD. However, we’ll also be touching on a lesser-known psychedelic that also shows promising attributes for treating the condition.
1. Microdosing Psilocybin for ADHD
There are several first-hand reports from people that have used and are still using psilocybin to treat their ADHD symptoms. Not everyone has the same experience. Some people report excellent results from using psilocybin microdoses for ADHD, and others report no change in their symptoms at all.
Psilocybin may not work for everyone, but it’s a good psychedelic to start with if you’re looking to experiment with microdosing because it’s readily available in the form of magic mushrooms, is easily cultivated at home, has already been proven safe, and is decriminalized in many municipalities around the world.
A typical microdose of psilocybin sits somewhere between 100 to 500 milligrams. This will be around 0.1 to 0.5 grams of dried psilocybin-containing mushrooms.
Microdosing with magic mushrooms isn’t an exact science. Figuring out the exact amount of psilocybin per gram of mushroom can be difficult, to say the least. There are over 100 distinct strains of magic mushrooms — each one with different potencies of psilocybin and psilocin.
There are also many different species of magic mushrooms — some contain very low potency (less than 0.1% total tryptamines); others are very strong (over 2% total tryptamines).
It’s more important to gauge the dose based on how you feel. Start low, with either 50 or 100 micrograms, and increase the dose slowly. You should feel some subtle cognitive effects, but there shouldn’t be any visual or auditory distortions after taking your dose.
There are many ways to take magic mushroom microdoses. The most common include brewing into a tea, filling into capsules, or sprinkling into smoothies or other foods (after cooking).
2. Microdosing LSD for ADHD
LSD is one of the most potent psychedelics — many times stronger than psilocybin. However, when used at equivalent doses, the effects are very similar.
The main problem with microdosing LSD is its incredible potency. LSD is consumed in minute amounts. As little as 50 micrograms (0.05 milligrams) can result in mind-bending psychedelic trips lasting hours at a time.
A standard microdose is around 1/10th of the psychoactive dose — which puts LSD microdoses somewhere between 5 and 15 micrograms.
Most LSD blotter tabs contain around 80–140 micrograms of LSD — so the easiest way to measure a microdose is to cut the tab into 9 individual pieces (separate into thirds vertically and horizontally).
If you’re lucky enough to be able to obtain liquid LSD, exact dosages can be measured through dilution — but this process should only be done by those experienced with LSD and who understand the principles of diluting psychedelics safely.
There’s very little room for error with LSD. Although consuming too much is unlikely to harm you, it’s possible that you’ll end up tripping.
Microdosers who use LSD to help with ADHD often note a reduction in symptoms as well as an increase in focus and clarity of mind.
There are a few drawbacks to using LSD in microdoses. Not everyone, but some do claim that it can make them feel spaced out and unfocused.
3. Microdosing 4-AcO-DMT for ADHD
4-AcO-DMT was originally created by Albert Hofmann (the man who invented LSD) in 1963. At the time, its psychoactive properties were not explored. However, a paper from 1999 proposed its potential use in therapy as a low-cost alternative to psilocybin .
This psychedelic is inactive in its natural form but acts as a prodrug for psilocin. This means it only becomes active after passing through the liver, but the effects are virtually identical to magic mushrooms. 4-AcO-DMT takes longer to kick in and remains active in the body for more time, but the effects and intensity of experience are almost identical to psilocybin.
This means that all the benefits associated with psilocybin for managing ADHD are implied with 4-AcO-DMT too.
The usual microdose of 4-AcO-DMT is 1 or 2 mg.
4. Microdosing Mescaline for ADHD
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethlamine) is the hallucinogenic compound that’s present in the peyote and San Pedro cacti. Although less popular now, it was one of the first psychedelics to enter Western culture. When the substance is taken as a microdose (a psychoactive dose), it can induce an intense psychedelic state similar to that produced by LSD and psilocybin. However, when mescaline is consumed as a microdose, the effects are very different.
When consumed as a sub-perceptual dose (10–30 milligrams), mescaline is not psychoactive. Instead, a low dose of this sort can produce relaxing and focusing effects — something that may be beneficial for people with ADHD.
The main benefit to microdosing mescaline over other tryptamine psychedelics such as psilocybin and LSD is that it’s less spacey. Some people complain that LSD and psilocybin can sometimes make concentrating even more difficult — especially if too much is used. Mescaline doesn’t seem to have this issue for most people. Users remain grounded and focused throughout the day.
More research is needed to elucidate these claims in more detail.
How Much is a Microdose?
A microdose is a sub-perceptual dose of a psychoactive substance. In simple terms, when you microdose a substance, you’re essentially consuming too small a dose to “get high” but enough to receive the potential benefits it has.
A typical microdose is 10% of a standard psychoactive dose, regardless of the substance.
With that said, the ideal microdose for one person may be different for someone else. Everyone experiences these substances differently, so it’s important to proceed with caution and start with a lower dose than you think you’ll need. Only once you’re familiar with how your body responds should you increase the dose.
|Substance||Conventional Dose||Approximate Microdose|
|Psilocybin (Pure)||10–25 mg||1–3 mg|
|Psilocybin (Magic Mushrooms)||2–5 g||0.2–0.5 g|
|LSD||50–200 mcg||5–20 mcg|
|ETH-LAD||50–200 mcg||5–20 mcg|
|PRO-LAD||50–200 mcg||5–20 mcg|
|ALD-52||50–200 mcg||5–20 mcg|
|LSZ||50–200 mcg||5–20 mcg|
|1P-LSD||50–200 mcg||5–20 mcg|
|4-AcO-DMT||10–30 mg||1–3 mg|
|Mescaline (Pure)||100–200 mg||10–20 mg|
|Mescaline (Dried Peyote Cactus)||5–15 grams||0.5–1.5 grams|
|Mescaline (Dried San Pedro Cactus)||1–2 grams||8–20 grams|
What Are the Risks of Microdosing Psychedelics?
There are few known risks with microdosing psilocybin. Nobody has ever overdosed on the substance, and few health concerns are associated with casual use. However, very little is known about the long-term effects of microdosing. Quite frankly, we don’t know how daily, weekly or monthly low doses of psilocybin affect the body and mind over several years.
There’s speculation that microdosing tryptamine substances such as psilocybin and LSD could be potentially harmful to heart health. There’s a theory that activation of the 5HT-2B serotonin receptor could lead to valvular heart disease (VHD) , but this has never been proven.
Short term, there are few serious risks. The biggest risk is consuming too high a dose and tripping when you don’t want to.
What is ADHD?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD for short, is a condition in which sufferers experience difficulty concentrating or controlling urges.
There are several symptoms associated with ADHD that can be seen in both children and adults. Many people “grow out” of these symptoms when they reach adolescence. However, adults often show symptoms of the condition throughout life.
Around 8.1% of Americans aged 18 to 44 years have prevalent ADHD symptoms .
ADHD symptoms can be categorized into two groups: inattentiveness (difficulty focusing and concentrating) and hyperactivity and impulsiveness.
Some people experience symptoms from just one of these groups, whereas others have symptoms from both groups.
Around 3 in 10 people with ADHD don’t experience hyperactivity or impulsiveness but have trouble concentrating and focusing. This form of the condition is known as ADD (attention deficit disorder). ADD symptoms are less noticeable, and the condition can go unnoticed until later in life.
Although ADD is relatively common, most people with an attention deficit fall into both categories (ADHD). Males are more commonly diagnosed with ADHD, whereas ADD is more common in females.
Here are the symptoms in both categorical groups that fall under the ADHD label:
- Carelessness & lack of attention to detail
- Difficulty dealing with stress
- Difficulty listening & carrying out instructions
- Easily distracted
- Inability to follow through with tasks
- Making simple (careless) mistakes
- Mood swings & irritability
- Short attention span
- The appearance of a lack of organizational skills
Hyperactivity & Impulsiveness Symptoms:
- A limited sense of danger
- Acting on impulses without thinking
- An inability to concentrate on tasks
- Difficulty dealing with stress
- Excessive physical movement & fidgeting
- Excessive talking
- Inability to sit still
- Interrupting others
What Causes ADHD?
ADHD is believed to be an inherited condition. In most cases, it runs in the family, and the genes someone inherits from their parents are thought to be a significant factor in developing the condition.
The specific genetics responsible for the ADHD condition is currently unknown. Although we’re almost certain that ADHD is inherited, it’s not related to a single genetic fault and how it’s passed on through generations is complex.
Consistent evidence supports the association of ADHD with the dopamine D4 receptor gene . However, the research isn’t consistent or prevalent enough to place this gene as the sole genetic factor that’s responsible for the condition.
Although ADHD seems to be a hereditary condition, that’s not to say that every family member will experience the symptoms of the condition. A child can develop ADD or ADHD regardless of whether the parents show the same symptoms. This makes it incredibly difficult to pinpoint the exact genetic faults associated with the condition.
A Final Word: Are Psychedelic Microdoses an Effective Treatment for ADHD?
Whether psychedelic microdosing is an effective treatment for reducing ADHD symptoms is still unclear. However, recent findings and first-hand reports from people consuming psychedelics for the condition support the claim.
It seems that the most effective psychedelic substances for ADHD are LSD and psilocybin. Many people report a reduction in symptoms after consuming low doses of these substances. There’s also a lot more in the way of research surrounding these substances.
There may well be other psychedelic substances that also help treat ADHD, but at this moment in time, we’re lacking reliable evidence and experiences from the people that may be using them.
For now, there’s promising evidence that suggests that LSD and psilocybin do help curb ADHD symptoms. As time goes on, we’re sure to see more research and clinical trials of these substances for people dealing with the condition.
The future looks bright, and psychedelics are finally starting to get the recognition they deserve. The “war on drugs” seems to be fizzling out, and as it does, we’ll begin to uncover the true potential of substances such as LSD and psilocybin.
- Hutten, N. R., Mason, N. L., Dolder, P. C., & Kuypers, K. P. (2019). Self-rated effectiveness of microdosing with psychedelics for mental and physical health problems among microdosers. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 672.
- Totomanova, Iva. (2020). Psychedelics as a Potential Treatment Option in ADHD.
- Li, J., Kang, C., Wang, Y., Zhou, R., Wang, B., Guan, L., … & Faraone, S. V. (2006). Contribution of 5‐HT2A receptor gene‐1438A> G polymorphism to outcome of attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 141(5), 473-476.
- Rothman, R. B., & Baumann, M. H. (2009). Serotonergic drugs and valvular heart disease. Expert opinion on drug safety, 8(3), 317-329.
- Nichols, D. E., & Frescas, S. (1999). Improvements to the synthesis of psilocybin and a facile method for preparing the O-acetyl prodrug of psilocin. Synthesis, 1999(06), 935-938.
- Forbes, F. (2006). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal-Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 36(4), 315.
- Thapar, A., & Stergiakouli, E. (2008). An Overview on the Genetics of ADHD. Xin li xue bao. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 40(10), 1088.